What is Cyber Crime and its Types?

What is Cyber Crime

The origin of cybercrime is at the beginning of the 1970s, criminals regularly committed this crime through the telephone.  The first person who committed a cyber crime was Lan Murphy and it happened in 1981. He hacked the American telephone industry to control its internal clocks so that users make phone calls at peak times.

Cybercrime is not a different sort of crime in the world. It is defined as criminal activity done through the medium of internet, web, computer network, or other technology which was covered by the Information Technology Act. It is spreading very fast in modern days. There are many criminal activities done through the internet. Cybercrime is an uncontrollable thing that is spreading like a virus throughout the world.

Cyber law

Cybercrime is a new type of crime that is increasing day by day due to misuse of the internet these days. For this government enacted the Information Technology Act 2000 for the betterment of society. It is also punishable under the Indian Penal Code, of 1860.

Definition – In Indian legislation there is no exact definition is provided even in Information Technology Act 2000 which deals with cyber crime does not include any definition.

Dr. Debarati Halder and Dr. Jaishankar define cyber crime as when an offence is committed with the intent of harming an individual or any group of people with criminal intention with the help of using telecommunication networks such as the internet (emails, chat rooms, fake links, and also through mobile phone (SMS, MMS) only to torture the victim physically or mentally for their profit.

Which Offences are punishable under the IT Act and IPC?

  1. Cybercrime under the IT Act
  • Cybercrimes under the IT Act with computer source documents under section 65
  • making changes with a computer system, Data alteration under section 66
  • Publishing obscene information under section 67
  • Unauthorized access to the protected system under section 70
  • Breach of confidential material and privacy under section 72
  • Publishing duplicate digital signature certificates under section 73
  1. Cybercrime under IPC
  • Email threatening message to the victim under section 503
  • Email a defamatory message to the victim under section 499
  • Forgery of electronics records under section 463
  • Bogus websites, cyber fraud under section 420
  • Spoofing by emails under section 463
  • Web jacking under section 383
  • Abusing through emails under section 500
  1. Cyber crimes under special laws
  • Sales of Arms Act on the Internet
  • Sales of drugs under the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act

Different types of cybercrime

  • Through email
  • Identity fraud
  • Infringing copyright
  • Gambling
  • Cyberbullying
  • Hacking
  • Distributing MMS online
  • Financial Theft

Most used Cybercrime by Cybercriminal

Malware attacks  

A malware attack is a computer virus, worms, Trojan horses, ransomware, and spyware where the attackers use the links. It harms or damages the network or services. When a victim clicks on random links the virus gets into their computer and the cybercriminal has all the data and uses it for financial gain.

Distributing Dos attacks

The Ddos distributed denial of service. It is used to jam the program or slow down the internet services. Cybercriminals use it to demand money or sometimes for distraction while other attacks take place.


It is used to send emails or different types of communication to trick the victims that they are doing something that will affect their security. In phishing, attackers send emails or links to your devices and if you click on them or open your data will be stolen.

How to report Cybercrime in India?

Every individual who is suffering from cybercrime can complain online on the portal of National Cyber Crime Reporting, call the national helpline number, or visit the nearby local police station. They will help you and explain everything what to do and how.

How to protect computer systems?

There is an act. The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA). It will provide safeguard the government and other computers. It is a law which helps to protect the computer system and network services. The aim is to protect computer services, networks, and databases, from unauthorized access and criminal activities. Such as:

  • Personal data
  • Financial data
  • Office records
  • Government data

If anybody tries to access or change the data without authorization it becomes illegal according to CFAA and it amounts to dealing with criminal charges.

Protection of stored electronic communication

  • Emails
  • Messages
  • Or stored messages on computers or servers

The CFAA also protects the privacy of people. It forbids the unauthorized access. It protects the stored communication.

Centralized enforcement and penalties 

The CFAA Act provides government agencies the authority to investigate and prosecute cybercrime. Cyber attackers caught will be liable for fines and imprisonment. The Punishment depends on the nature and extent of the crime. Cybercrime comes under criminal as well as civil law.

How to guard yourself from cyber attackers?

  • Updates

Keep your computer system updated and download the new security patches to protect your computer.

  • Antivirus

Use antivirus on your software. It will help you to detect the spammers or automatically remove the threats, and viruses.  Also up to date with your antivirus for better results.

  • Strong passwords

Use as strong as possible password for your system so nobody can guess and also do not save your password on software.

  • Spam emails

In this cyber attackers send links in emails which infected by malware attacks. The simple thing is do not open the attachments from the sender you do not know.

  • Personal information security

Never share your personal information through emails or phone with anybody unless you are known to them.

  • Websites URLs

Always check the URLs that you have clicked on. Never click on random URLs.

  • Bank statements

Always check own your bank statement. Never give your bank information online to you don’t know. Many attackers theft money through phone calls by only knowing your bank information.


People are living in the digital age and because of this cybercrime is not limited to one area it covers the entire world. As it result cyber crime day by day all over countries including India. Also, take the help of a public prosecutor who will guide you according to your case. Cybercrime is increasing because of its changing nature it is evolving very fast. Which results in new cyber crimes and technology coming into practice. So it is important to give equal importance to other crimes happening in our society.



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